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Blog criado por Bruno Coriolano de Almeida Costa, professor de Língua Inglesa desde 2002. Esse espaço surgiu em 2007 com o objetivo de unir alguns estudiosos e professores desse idioma. Abordamos, de forma rápida e simples, vários aspectos da Língua Inglesa e suas culturas. Agradeço a sua visita. "Stay hungry. Stay foolish!"

quinta-feira, 21 de agosto de 2014

The Origins of 10 Nicknames


1.  WHY IS DICK FROM RICHARD?


The name Richard is very old and was popular during the Middle Ages. In the 12th and 13th centuries, everything was written by hand and Richard nicknames like Rich and Rick were common just to save time. Rhyming nicknames were also common and eventually Rick gave way to Dick and Hick, while Rich became Hitch. Dick, of course, is the only rhyming nickname that stuck over time. And boy did it stick. At one point in England, the name Dick was so popular that the phrase "every Tom, Dick, or Harry" was used to describe Everyman.

2.  WHY IS BILL FROM WILLIAM?


There are many theories on why Bill became a nickname for William; the most obvious is that it was part of the Middle Ages trend of letter swapping. Much how Dick is a rhyming nickname for Rick, the same is true of Bill and Will. Because hard consonants are easier to pronounce than soft ones, some believe Will morphed into Bill for phonetic reasons. Interestingly, when William III ruled over in England in the late 17th century, his subjects mockingly referred to him as "King Billy."

3.  WHY IS HANK FROM HENRY?


The name Henry dates back to medieval England. (Curiously, at that time, Hank was a diminutive for John.) So how do we get Hank from Henry? Well, one theory says that Hendrick is the Dutch form of the English name Henry. Henk is the diminutive form of Hendrick, ergo, Hank from Henk. Hanks were hugely popular here in the States for many decades, though by the early 90s it no longer appeared in the top 1,000 names for baby boys. But Hank is making a comeback! In 2010, it cracked the top 1,000, settling at 806. By 2012 it was up to 685.


4.  WHY IS JACK FROM JOHN?


The name Jack dates back to about 1,200 and was originally used as a generic name for peasants. Over time, Jack worked his way into words such as lumberjack and steeplejack. Even jackass, the commonly used term for a donkey, retains its generic essence in the word Jack. Of course, John was once used as a generic name for English commoners and peasants, (John Doe) which could be why Jack came became his nickname. But the more likely explanation is that Normans added -kin when they wanted to make a diminutive. And Jen was their way of saying John. So little John became Jenkin and time turned that into Jakin, which ultimately became Jack.

5.  WHY IS CHUCK FROM CHARLES?


"Dear Chuck" was an English term of endearment and Shakespeare, in Macbeth, used the phrase to refer to Lady Macbeth. What's this have to do with Charles? Not much, but it's interesting. However, Charles in Middle English was Chukken and that's probably where the nickname was born. 

6.  WHY IS PEGGY FROM MARGARET?


The name Margaret has a variety of different nicknames. Some are obvious, as in Meg, Mog and Maggie, while others are downright strange, like Daisy. But it's the Mog/Meg we want to concentrate on here as those nicknames later morphed into the rhymed forms Pog(gy) and Peg(gy).

7.  WHY IS TED FROM EDWARD?


The name Ted is yet another result of the Old English tradition of letter swapping. Since there were a limited number of first names in the Middle Ages, letter swapping allowed people to differentiate between people with the same name. It was common to replace the first letter of a name that began with a vowel, as in Edward, with an easier to pronounce consonant, such as T. Of course, Ted was already a popular nickname for Theodore, which makes it one of the only nicknames derived from two different first names. Can you name the others?

8.  WHY IS HARRY FROM HENRY?


Since Medieval times, Harry has been a consistently popular nickname for boys named Henry in England. Henry was also very popular among British monarchs, most of whom preferred to be called Harry by their subjects. This is a tradition that continues today as Prince Henry of Wales , as he was Christened, goes by Prince Harry. Of course, Harry is now used as a given name for boys. In 2006, it was the 593rd most popular name for boys in the United States. One reason for its upsurge in popularity is the huge success of those amazing Harry Potter books.

9.  WHY IS JIM FROM JAMES?


There are no definitive theories on how Jim became the commonly used nickname for James, but the name dates back to at least the 1820s. For decades, Jims were pretty unpopular due to the "Jim Crow Law," which was attributed to an early 19th century song and dance called "Jump Jim Crow," performed by white actors in blackface. The name "Jim Crow" soon became associated with African Americans and by 1904, Jim Crow aimed to promote segregation in the South. Jim has since shed its racial past, and is once again a popular first name for boys all by itself, sans James.

10.              WHY IS SALLY FROM SARAH?


Sally was primarily used as a nickname for Sarah in England and France. Like some English nicknames, Sally was derived by replacing the R in Sarah with an L. Same is true for Molly, a common nickname for Mary. Though Sally from the Peanuts never ages, the name itself does and has declined in popularity in recent years. Today, most girls prefer the original Hebrew name Sarah.


NOMES DAS PROFISSÕES EM INGLÊS:
Esta é uma lista com as principais profissões e suas traduções para português.

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quarta-feira, 20 de agosto de 2014

The mystery of motion sickness - Rose Eveleth.

Although one third of the population suffers from motion sickness, scientists aren't exactly sure what causes it. Like the common cold, it's a seemingly simple problem that's still without a cure. And if you think it's bad on a long family car ride, imagine being a motion sick astronaut! Rose Eveleth explains what's happening in our bodies when we get the car sick blues.



Understanding Language: Learning and Teaching.

An introduction to some key concepts in the effective teaching and learning of languages.


ABOUT THE COURSE

The ability to produce language is a defining characteristic of human beings. We live in a vibrant multilingual world, with language all around us. We deal with many languages daily. We speak in our native tongue, and use and listen to second languages.

But what is language? How do we learn meaning in a new language? What is easy and hard about learning another language? What do we know about effective teaching for language learning?

This free online course from the University of Southampton and the British Council will ask these questions and suggest some answers. You’ll find out what makes the teaching and learning of a language effective.

The course takes place over four weeks. It will introduce you to some of the latest ideas in research and practice in language learning and teaching. We will:
  • Explore second language learning and what it means to learn language
  • Consider language classrooms and how teaching affects our language learning
  • Look at the use of technology in teaching, and its benefits and challenges for language learning.
Finally, we will investigate the case of English – the most widely learnt and taught language in the world. How has English achieved this position? What are the implications of the spread of English for policy, teaching and other languages?

The course includes quizzes, activities, discussions and videos filmed around the world. The videos feature experts such as British Council teachers, and staff and students at the University of Southampton.

During the course, you will hear different voices sharing their ideas and opinions – and we want to hear yours too. How do you use language in YOUR life? What is YOUR experience of language learning and teaching? Join us – to discuss effective language learning and teaching.

The course will give you a taster of some of the ideas covered in the MA in English Language Teaching – a joint online course from the British Council and University of Southampton which offers postgraduate study in Applied Linguistics and English Language Teaching.

If you would like to join in and contribute to conversations about this course on social media, use the hashtag #FLLanguage and follow our Twitter account @UoS_FLLanguage.

This course will give you the opportunity to buy a Statement of Participation.

REQUIREMENTS


This course is aimed at graduates with an interest in the development of languages and language teaching. However, no prior knowledge is required to take part in the course and we welcome anyone who is curious to know more about language learning and teaching.

terça-feira, 19 de agosto de 2014

The Ice Bucket Challenge.

Okay, here we are again. My next blog posts will probably be very short. That is, I will either post lesser then the previous week or there will be no posts at all.






TOO MANY PEOPLE AND ICE BUCKETS. No, that’s not a new short story or a name for a novel! It’s rather about the huge number of videos people have been publishing recently. Let me see if we are on the same page – If you have logged onto Facebook this week, chances are your newsfeed has been flooded with videos of people drenching themselves in ice water. Have you seen them? Were you wondering what the heck that was?



Seriously? Well, it’s all about The Ice Bucket Challenge. It is “an activity involving dumping a bucket of ice water on one's head, which was started as a campaign to promote awareness of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)”. It gained widespread popularity in 2014.

P.s.: I also had a hard time trying to figure this ALS out. Luckily, I have finally found it on Wikipedia- Esclerose lateral amiotrófica.



I have showed my students some videos about the challenge, but I especially liked the ones with Mark Zuckerberg – the one that he nominates Bill Gate –, and Bill Gates’s answer. (You may want to watch both of them):

Mark Zuckerberg Ice Bucket Challenge   Nominates Bill Gate!   Official video:



Mark Zuckerberg:

“Yesterday, Governor Chris Christie challenged me to do the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge.

I accepted his challenge, and now I'm challenging Bill Gates, Sheryl Sandberg and Reed Hastings next.

You guys have 24 hours to complete the challenge or you have to donate to the ALS foundation -- or both.

Finding ways to treat and cure ALS is an important cause. Find out more here: http://www.alsa.org”  


Bill Gates ALS Ice Bucket Challenge:




Bill Gates:

“Mark Zuckerberg challenged me to dump a bucket of ice water on my head to raise awareness for ALS.

I’m always up for a challenge.

Now I’m passing it on to On Air with Ryan Seacrest, Chris Anderson from TED, and Elon Musk. You have 24 hours…”


The rules are “within 24 hours of receiving a challenge, participants are to video record themselves in continuous footage. First, they are to announce their acceptance of the challenge followed by pouring ice into a bucket of water. The bucket is then to be lifted overhead and poured over the participant's head. After completion, the participant has the option of extend the challenge and to donate $10 to the ALS charity of their choice. Alternatively, they can decline the challenge, in which case they are encouraged to donate $100.”

Well, taking into account that students like challenges, I will challenge them. You don’t believe it, do you? Well, wait for my next video on the subject.




  
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In some instances, I have been unable to trace the owners of the pictures used here; therefore, I would appreciate any information that would enable me to do so. Thank you very much.
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sábado, 16 de agosto de 2014

Cartoon: Ad Infinitum.





BACKGROUND

The English Premier League starts today. The world's most popular football league is back after a three months hiatus. The new season promises more excitement, thrills, drama, upsets and surprises. Champions Manchester City will battle a resurgent Manchester United as well as Chelsea, Arsenal and Liverpool to hold onto their Premier League crown.  

CARTOON

The cartoon by Bob from the Daily Telegraph comprises two panels. In the left-hand panel a man is sitting in front of the TV crying because the World Cup in Brazil has just finished ("It's over"). His wife, who seems unimpressed, hands him a tissue to dry his eyes. In the right-hand panel, the same man is staring excitedly at the screen because it's the first day of the Premier League ("It's started"). This time his wife, whose expression has not changed, is removing the box of tissues and handing him a can of beer.

COMMENTARY

The title of the cartoon 'Ad Infinitum' is Latin for 'to infinity'. If something happens ad infinitum, it never finishes, or happens again and again.



• You cannot stay here ad infinitum without paying rent. The cartoonist is making a humorous comment on fact that as soon as one football competition ends, another one begins, and so on until the end of time (or so it seems).


From the English Blog. 

sexta-feira, 15 de agosto de 2014

O que significa “comprehensive” em inglês?



Muito cuidado com o adjetivo comprehensive. Ele está muito longe de significar “compreensivo”. É empregado com os significados de “abrangente”; “completo”.

CONFIRA OS EXEMPLOS:


Dorothy described her thesis as a comprehensive study of violence and its causes.

Dorothy descreveu sua tese como um estudo abrangente da violência e suas causas.

The bank offers its customers a comprehensive range of investments.

O banco oferece aos correntistas um amplo leque de aplicações financeiras.

Dublin A to Z is a comprehensive guide of restaurants and pubs in that city.

Dublin A à Z é um guia completo de restaurantes e bares naquela cidade.





 Toda esta postagem foi retirada do livro Falsos Cognatos: Looks can be deceiving, de José Roberto A. Igreja.

PORTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-partly internet websites referred to in this post, and does not guarantee that any context on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.
In some instances, I have been unable to trace the owners of the pictures used here; therefore, I would appreciate any information that would enable me to do so. Thank you very much.
Is something important missing? Report an error or suggest an improvement.
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quinta-feira, 14 de agosto de 2014

With Turf, Women See Unequal Footing.





Within minutes of the goal, the image was seen around the world: Robin van Persie, playing in the Netherlands’ World Cup opener in June, flying what seemed like dozens of feet above the ground, headfirst, to score a goal against Spain. The Internet went berserk. Van Persie, the Flying Dutchman. Van Persie as Superman. Van Persie, the newest Peter Pan.

Who will provide the van Persie moment of the Women’s World Cup next year in Canada? United States forward Abby Wambach can tell you who it won’t be.

“I’m not going in for a diving header like van Persie did, no way,” she told me last week, which sounded weird coming from a player known for such plays.

Her reasoning was simple. Performing a diving header on a grass field is one thing; doing it on artificial turf — which, for the first time, will be used for every field at next year’s women’s championship — is something else altogether.

That is why Wambach and a host of other top players — including Alex Morgan and Heather O’Reilly of the United States, and Nadine Angerer of Germany, the 2013 player of the year — have been protesting the plan to use artificial turf at the World Cup since it was announced. Recently they took their protest up a notch, threatening legal action if the tournament isn’t played on grass.

“It’s a gender issue through and through,” Wambach said, pointing out that a top men’s competition like the World Cup or the Champions League final has never been played on it.

“This being the pinnacle of our sport,” Wambach added, “We feel like we should be treated just like the men.”

Last year, Wambach and other players signed a petition urging FIFA and Canada’s soccer association to use grass fields at the tournament. Nearly 4,000 people added their support by signing, too, including more than 50 national-team players from 12 countries.

Nothing changed.

Now, with the tournament less than a year away, the players say they are willing to take their fight to court if they must.

Late last month, their lawyers sent letters to FIFA and the Cup’s Canadian organizers saying they would go to court if necessary if those entities refused to change the fields to grass.

“Singling out this women’s tournament for substandard treatment is a mistake that can and must be corrected,” the letter said.

The players have yet to receive a response to the letter from FIFA or from Canada’s soccer association, which has said that its initial proposal to FIFA included a plan to play on artificial turf and that its fields will meet FIFA standards. Besides, the Canadians have said, other top soccer tournaments have been held on some of the fields with no complaints, including the U-20 Women’s World Cup being played in Canada this month.

Yet the group of players, led by Wambach, isn’t taking no for an answer.

The players aren’t threatening to boycott the World Cup if the issue isn’t remedied, said Hampton Dellinger, one of their lawyers. But he stressed that they would keep pushing the issue if FIFA and organizers continue to ignore them.

The fight here is not really about the downside of artificial turf, of which there are many. The ball rolls faster and straighter and bounces higher on turf than on grass, and sliding is a hazardous proposition, since synthetic turf causes more friction than grass. As the knees, elbows and chins of soccer players everywhere will divulge, the turf can peel back layers of skin, and it may cause concussions because it tends to be less forgiving than grass.

“There’s not a person on the planet that would prefer playing on it, not even Sepp Blatter,” Wambach said, referring to the FIFA president, who last week insisted artificial turf was the future of the sport (though apparently not for men’s championships).

The real fight is about the world’s top soccer tournament being played on an inferior surface. Sure, some Major League Soccer teams play on it, even if stars like Thierry Henry avoid it. But there is little question that fake grass changes the game, and there is no reason top women’s players should have to endure it when men don’t.

To change plans now would require some money, for sure, but FIFA was expected to make $2 billion off the World Cup in Brazil. It seems improbable that the organization spent it all already. Why not shake loose some change to allow the women to play on grass?

Let them muddy their faces and stain their shorts green. Let them pick blades of grass out of their teeth. Let them dive headfirst and celebrate the way they like.
For Wambach, celebrations usually mean a sprint to the corner flag and a double knee slide in the grass.

But not on turf.

Those boundless joys at the World Cup, as it stands now, are reserved for the men. FIFA has the time and the resources to change that.